Azerbaijan is located in the west of the Caspian Sea, in the South Caucasus. Azerbaijan is bordered by Russia to the north, Georgia to the north-west, Turkey to the south-west, Armenia to the west, Iran to the south. Through the Caspian Sea has borders with Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Iran and Russia. Part of the territory of Azerbaijan: Daghlik-Garabagh region and seven adjacent administrative districts was occupied by the Republic of Armenia. It constitutes 20% of the country's territory.The capital city is Baku. The total population of Azerbaijan is 10 million. The total number of Azerbaijanis living in the world is 50 million (30 million in Islamic Republic of Iran, 3 million in Russian Federation, 3 million in Turkish Republic, 3 million in Republic of Iraq, 1 million in Europe, 500.000 in Republic of Georgia, 450.000 in USA, and 232.000 in Central Asia).Azerbaijan has been part of the history of states and empires: Manna, Medina, Sassanid, Albania, Atropatena, Shirvanshahs, Ravvadids, Shaddadis, Sajids, Salaries, Seljuks, Karakoyuns, Akkoyunlus, Safavids, Avshars, Gajars.9 out of 11 climatic zones in the world, 344 of the more than 2000 mud volcanoes known in the world are in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan has the world's largest outdoor museum: the Gobustan Reserve. On May 28, 1918, the first democratic republic in the east, and for the first time recognizing women’s right to vote in selection in the east, the People's Republic of Azerbaijan was established in Azerbaijan. The three-color flag, hymn and other national attributes adopted by the People's Republic of Azerbaijan were adopted as national symbols after independence in 1991 after the collapse of the USSR.Azerbaijan is a unitary presidential republic. A presidential candidate can not be elected more than twice. The elected candidate holds the post of president for 7 years.